Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Wi-Fi interview Questions and Answers

Following are the frequently asked Wi-Fi/wifi interview questions and answers. If you have any questions or answers please share with us, we create a unique page for Wi-Fi.

what is Wi-Fi?

WiFi refers to the Wireless connection based local network that is set up to a very restricted range. IEEE maintains the standard for the wireless connection based networks. Wi-Fi stands for Wireless Fidelity an represents the signal transmission mechanism over distances without physical wires.

What are the advantages of Wi-Fi?

mobility( access data while moving) , easy to install( places where wires cannot be put), Flexibility ( helps in quick form of the connection). less cost ( with less money bridge can be created).

what are wireless tools, why it is required?

Wireless tools are mainly added in Root File System(RFS). Wireless tools are mainly open source project. The communication between Application and Network is done through IOCTL's. IOCTL are input output control for device specific operation. Another advantage is device specific parameters may be changed on the fly without restarting the driver (or Linux).The Wireless Tools (WT) is a set of tools allowing to manipulate the Wireless Extensions.

few of the tools are

iwconfig manipulate the basic wireless parameter.
iwlist allow to initiate scanning and list frequencies, bit-rates, encryption keys.
allow to get per node link quality
iwpriv allow to manipulate the Wireless Extensions specific to a driver (private).

for e.g.
iwpriv ra0 set AuthMode=OPEN.

How to compile Wi-Fi driver and insert?

There are different ways to compile Wi-Fi driver depends on the way it implemented. Mostly third party drivers are compiled with the following steps.

select the mode.
select the appropriate toolchain.
enable or disable certain features from the configuration file.
compile the driver with proper kernel source in the location.
insert the module and put the wireless tools in RFS.

what are the steps in Wi-Fi connection establishment?

When Wi-Fi station requires connection, It will start associating with the access point using the Wi-Fi configuration information called as SSID, mode, channel no, MAC address, authentication type and key.

Initialization: Initialization of Wi-Fi device in particular mode named as a,b,g and n.

Scanning: Scanning the list of accesspoints with in the coverage area.

Authentication : Authenticating the station with the Access point depending on the authentication mode in Access point and the key supplied by the user.

Association : Joining with the access point to transmit data to and fro.

Network configuration: After successfully get associated with Accesspoint, we need to configure IP address for the transmission of data using TCP/IP layer.

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Basic Intellectual Property Rights with Questions and Answers

Intellectual property: Set of rights in the form of patents, trademarks, copyrights, Industrial Design, IC layout design, trade secret etc.

Following are the Minutes of OME Community April meet on April,2011 Christ University, Bangalore.

Patent: Rights given to a inventor, Some thing Industrially applicable, Mainly to protect idea.
Trademark: Name of company, logo of company, Name which is used to sell a product.
Copyright: Way in which a implementation is protected.
Industrial design: Design of any thing like "shape of a soap".
Trade Secret: To protect company secrets, In few companies some type of agreement is made with employees. presently no law is there.
Plant Varieties: making changes in the existing things.

Registration of trademark

Website for Registration is : www.ipindia.nic.in:
This website contains a database for maintaining all trademarks, patents etc.

Trademark registration comes under a particular class: There are 45 Classes.

1 to 34 are comes in Goods. 35 to 45 comes in Services.

Class 1 : Chemicals.
Class 2 : paints.
Class 3 : bleaching preparation.
Class 4 : Industrial oils.
Class 5 : Pharmaceutical and veterinary preparations.
Class 6 : Common metals and alloys.
Class 7 : Machines and machine tools.
Class 8 : Hand tools.
Class 9 : Digital.
Class 10 : Surgical, medical, dental etc.
Class 11 : lighting.
Class 12 : Vehicles.
Class 13 : firearms.
Class 14 : precious metals and alloys.
Class 15 : Musical Instruments.

Class 34 : tobacco.
Class 35 : Advertising.
Class 36 : Insurance.
Class 37 : Building construction.
Class 38 : telecommunication.
Class 39 : transport packaging.
Class 40 : Treatment of materials.
Class 41 : Scientific and technological services.
Class 42 : Education.
Class 43 : Food and drink etc.
Class 44 : Medical services.
Class 45 : Personal and social service.

Registration of Domain Name

1) Domain name registrant.
2) Agent provides domain name registration.
3) owner or registrant of trademark.

Question and Answers:

1) what will happen any body registers a domain name with my company name?
Answer: The registrar will send a mail regarding that.

2) what is cyber Squatting?
Answer: They allocate all the domain names earlier and they sell at higher price.

3) What will happen if i register a trademark and don't use it?
Answer: It gets deactivated automatically after a certain time.

Some facts about Intellectual property

1) Agency need to notify owner for any changes.
2) Before starting any business we must register a trademark.
3) TM means: Application received, TM(R): Registered.
4) In INDIA Copyright registration is done in DELHI, In America it is done online.
5) If we file any case, you should be affordable to pay any losses.
6) Before posting other content, we should take permission.
7) while creating a copyright we should specify names of all authors.
8) Don't publish any information before filing a patent.
9) Write your own content for long term benefits.

Do's/ Don'ts of Social Media

1) protect your Intellectual property.
2) Aware of copyright, license and agreements.
3) place appropriate Intellectual property Notices.
4) Never use third party IP without permission.

Book: Intellectual Property rights by Narayanan.


1) focus.com
2) Quixey is the Application search engine.
3) Google panda.
4) about.me similar to online business card.